Diving into Cosmos Alphabet Soup. My journey around the Cosmos ecosystem… | by Glaicon Peixer | Coinmonks | Mar, 2023

My journey around the Cosmos ecosystem has been amazing, with tons of new concepts and technologies. I want to share a bit of this experience with you.

Below, I will share the new concepts and technologies I discovered while diving into the Cosmos ecosystem 👇

The Cosmos SDK is an open-source framework that enables the building of multi-asset public Proof-of-Stake (PoS) blockchains, such as the Cosmos Hub, as well as permission Proof-of-Authority (PoA) blockchains. These blockchains are generally known as application-specific blockchains when built using the Cosmos SDK. Full details here.

An application-specific blockchain is a blockchain customized to operate a single application: developers have all the freedom to make the design decisions required for the application to run optimally. They can also provide better sovereignty, security, and performance.

Developers build their own blockchains from the ground up, which involves creating a full-node client, a light client, and all the necessary interfaces (CLI, REST, etc.) to interact with the nodes. Get more details here.

ABCI is the interface between CometBFT (a state-machine replication engine) and the actual state-machine being replicated (i.e., the Application). Check it out here.

CometBFT is software for securely and consistently replicating an application on many machines. By securely, we mean that CometBFT works as long as less than 1/3 of machines fail in arbitrary ways. CometBFT consists of two chief technical components: a blockchain consensus engine and a generic application interface.

CometBFT is designed to be easy-to-use, simple-to-understand, highly performant, and useful for a wide variety of distributed applications

A deterministic system is a system in which no randomness is involved in the development of future states of the system. The logic for blockchain transaction processing must be deterministic. If the application logic weren’t deterministic, consensus would not be reached among the CometBFT replica nodes.

More commonly known as Byzantine Fault Tolerant (BFT) consensus or atomic broadcast, the problem has attracted significant attention in recent years due to the widespread success of blockchain-based digital currencies, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, which successfully solved the problem in a public setting without a central authority. Tendermint modernizes classic academic work on the subject and simplifies the design of the BFT algorithm by relying on a peer-to-peer gossip protocol among nodes. More info here.

When more than two-thirds of the validators pre-vote for the same block, we call that a polka. Every pre-commit must be justified by a polka in the same round. A block is committed when more than 2/3 of validators pre-commit for the same block in the same round.

Validators can be forced, by logic in the application, to “bond” their currency holdings in a security deposit that can be destroyed if they’re found to misbehave in the consensus protocol. This adds an economic element to the security of the protocol, allowing one to quantify the cost of violating the assumption that less than one-third of voting power is Byzantine.

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